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Suicide Stats & Research

ONS STATISTICS

Release Mortality statistics in England and Wales by sex and age range (ONS) Dec 2015

Data – Suicide numbers and rates are now available for the individual nations via ONS, NISRA and GRO. Download CALM’s compiled figures for 2014 here. Oct 2015

Data ONS Suicide figures 1981-2014.

Data – Number of suicides, and suicide rates, from 1981 onwards, by sex and age. Information on the impact of narrative conclusions on suicide rates is also provided.

Statistical Bulletin – Suicides in the United Kingdom, 2013 Registrations (ONS statistical bulletin) Feb 2015

Data – Mortality stats deaths registered in Eng & Wales 2013 with CALM calculations Oct 2014

DataSuicides in the UK 1981-2013 (ONS Table 7) updated and Formatted by CALM Oct 2014

Raw Data  Reference Tables for Suicides in the UK 1981 – 2012 Feb 2014

Statistical Bulletin – Suicides in the UK, 2012 Feb 2014

Infographic – Leading Cause of Death in England & Wales by Gender 1202 Dec 2013

Statistical Bulletin – Suicides in the UK, 2011 Jan 2013

Statistical Bulletin Suicide rates in the UK 2006 – 2010 Jan 2012

Statistical Bulletin – Suicide rates in the UK 2000 – 2009 Jan 2011

GOVERNMENT REPORTS

Government – Preventing suicide in England: one year on first annual report on the cross-government outcomes strategy to save lives Feb 2014

Dept of Health –  ‘Closing the gap: priorities for essential change in mental health’ Jan 2014

Dept of Health  – ‘Statistical update on suicide‘ Jan 2014

Government– ‘UK Government suicide prevention strategy and supporting documents’ Sept 2012

Dept of Health – Suicide Prevention Strategy for England Sept 2012

Dept of HealthStatistical Update on Suicide Sept 2012

Dept of HealthPreventing Suicide in England: A Cross Government Outcomes Strategy to Save lives Sept 2012

Dept of Health – Consultation on Preventing Suicide in England: a cross-government strategy to save lives – Impact assessment July 2011

RESEARCH

Data Comparison – CALM compiled table showing 45% increase in male suicide awareness between Oct and Dec YouGov polls as result of ‘Bigger Issues’ campaign. Dec 2015

Research Survey: Crisis And Contemplation Of Suicide – YouGov, Nov 2015 (commissioned for #BiggerIssues campaign)

Systematic Review: Social media and suicide prevention – Early Interv Psychiatry, Feb 2015

Research Findings: Austerity in the Eurozone and Suicide – Social Science & Medicine, Sept 2015

Research Survey: Gay Men & Mental Health – GMFA / FS Magazine, Aug 2015

Annual Report: National Confidential Inquiry Into Suicide And Homicide By People With Mental Illness – Manchester University Centre for Mental health and Safety – July 2015

Media Release:  New research helps identify men who may be at risk of suicide – Beyond Blue, Australia. March 2015

Suicide Prevention Guidelines: Men, Unemployment & Suicide – AIMHS & University of Western Sydney, March 2015

Media Release: Suggested guidelines for male suicide researchers & prevention program developers, AIMHS, March 2015

Media Release: Male health Victoria (MHV) Position statement re: suicide in unemployed men, MHV, Australia, March 2015

Research Report: Norwegian researchers publish a report on suicide in apparently well-functioning young men

Reference: Rasmussen, M. L., Haavind, H., Dieserud, G. K., & Dyregrov, K. Exploring vulnerability to suicide in the developmental history of young men: A psychological autopsy study. Death Studies, published online ahead of print 19th December 2013. ISSN 0748-1187.s doi: 10.1080/07481187.2013.780113

‘SANE on Suicide’ – Mental health charity, SANE, undertook a research project that talked to people who had attempted suicide, their close family and friends and people bereaved by suicide in order to understand the process of suicide through accounts of experience and to inform effective suicide prevention strategies.

Your can read their Report of Findings and Summary of Findings.

RESEARCH: Suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse: Examining abuse severity, mental health, and masculine norms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(6), 380-38. Easton, S.D., Renner, L.M. & O’Leary, P.

SUMMARY: The rationale of this study was to examine how a history of sexual abuse, mental health, masculine norms and suicide attempts interact. It was confirmed that all of these factors increased the odds of a suicide attempt in the past 12 months for a sample of 487 men before the study was concluded. Practitioners should incorporate these factors into assessment and treatment planning.
 

RESEARCH: Duration of unemployment and suicide in Australia over the period 1985-2006: an ecological investigation by sex and age during rising versus declining national unemployment rates. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 67(3), 237-44. Milner, A., Page, A. & Lamontagne, A.D.

SUMMARY: National unemployment rates and the duration of unemployment in Australia were investigated in relation to suicide. There was a correlation between longer periods of unemployment and higher male suicide rates. The interaction of unemployment duration and male suicide was most commonly found between the ages of 12-24 and 44-54. This may reflect the social norms that put pressure on males as well as life stages were there it is necessary to be self-sufficient.
 

RESEARCH: Family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood predict suicide in male suicide attempters. Journal of Affective Disorders, 148(1), 92-97. Rajalin, M., Hirvikoski, T. & Jokinen, J.

SUMMARY: Family history and childhood trauma are evaluated in terms of their strength as predictors of suicide risk and on the severity of the suicide attempt. 181 suicide attempters were included in this study. Suicide intent, the level of exposure to violence and family history of suicide was assessed. Male attempters that had a strong family history of suicide made more serious and planned attempts than females.
 

RESEARCH: The Experience of Symptoms of Depression in Men vs Women – Analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Lisa A Martin, PhD, Harold Neighbours, PhD, Derek M.Griffith PhD, University of Michigan & Vanderbilt University.  Published in JAMA

RESEARCH: Impact of 2008 Global Economic Crisis On Suicide: Time Trend Study in 54 Countries.  David Stuckler, Su-Chen Chang, Paul Yip, David Gunnell. Published in BMJ.

2012

RESEARCH: Rural male suicide in Australia. Social science & medicine, 74(4), 515-22. Alston, M.

SUMMARY: In Australia, the suicide rate is higher for men in rural areas than for women in rural areas as well as the population in urban areas. The contributing factors outlined are higher access to fire arms, a poorer economic climate and isolation from social interaction. Climate change and variability has led to unsatisfactory farming conditions. This results in a decrease in health and income due to a reduction of output. This paper suggests that the wellbeing of rural males needs to be looked into further as well as the cultural expectations placed on men.
 

RESEARCH: Spatial analysis of suicide mortality in Australia: Investigation of metropolitan-rural-remote differentials of suicide risk across states/territories. Social Science & Medicine, 75(8), 1460-1468.  Cheung, Y.T.D., Spittal, M.J., Pirkis, J. & Yip, P.S.F.

SUMMARY: A study of sex specific suicide patterns and location trends from 2004-2008, males living in remote areas were more at risk than females. This study shows that it is important to factor in geographical location and gender.
 

RESEARCH: The length of unemployment predicts mortality, differently in men and women, and by cause of death: A six-year mortality follow-up of the Swedish 1992–1996 recession. Social Science & Medicine 74(12), 1911-20. Garcy, A.M, & Denny, V.

SUMMARY: This paper analyses data from the Swedish recession of 1992-1996 and concludes that there is a trend between long-term unemployment and increased death rates for both men and women. However, the female deaths were more strongly linked with alcohol intoxication and more males died in transport accidents. A recession leads to stress, which contributes to suicide rates, accidents and health conditions.
 

RESEARCH: Suicide in young men. The Lancet, 379(9834), 2383-2392. Pitman, A., Krysinska, K., Osborn, D. & King, M.

SUMMARY: The article emphasises that the majority of suicides are male. The male demographic is accountable for a large proportion of the economic cost of suicide. Few interventions to reduce suicide in young men have been assessed.
 

RESEARCH: Men’s sexual orientation and suicide: evidence for U.S adolescent-specific risk. Social science & medicine (1982), 74(4), 523-9. Russell, S.T. & Toomey, R.B.

SUMMARY: Suicide risk was documented for men in same sex relationships. Suicidal thoughts and attempts for same sex relationships for men was localised to the adolescent years.
 

RESEARCH: Suicide Associated with the 2008 – 10 Economic recession in England: Time Trend Analysis. Ben Barr, David Taylor-Robinson, Alex Scott-Samuel, Martin McKee, David Stuckler. Published in BMJ

2011

RESEARCH: History of suicide attempt in male substance dependent inpatients and relationship to borderline personality features, anger, hostility and aggression. Psychiatry Research,190(1), 126-131. Evren, C., Cınar, O., Evren, B. & Celik, S.

SUMMARY: The relationship between the severity of borderline personality and the history of suicide attempts in male substance-dependent inpatients was analyzed. Anger, hostility and aggression were also analyzed in terms of this relationship. 200 male substance-dependent inpatients were the participants. Results suggest that in order to reduce the risk of suicide attempts feelings of anger must be the evaluated and treated among those with borderline personality characteristics.
 

RESEARCH: The effect of national suicide prevention programs on suicide rates in 21 OECD nations. Social Science & Medicine, 73(9),1395-1400. Matsubayashi, T. & Ueda, M.

SUMMARY: Countries have addressed increasing suicide rates by developing comprehensive suicide prevention programs. No prior research has been conducted to test of their effectiveness using cross-national data. Suicide prevention programs in twenty-one OECD nations are evaluated to assess whether they had the effect of reducing suicide rates. The data analyzed was from1980 and 2004. Overall suicide rates decreased after the nationwide introduction of suicide prevention programs. These government-led suicide prevention programs are most effective in preventing suicides among the elderly and young populations however; the mid-age range with the highest levels of suicide remained unchanged.
 

2010

RESEARCH: Economic fluctuations and suicide: A comparison of Taiwan and Hong Kong. Social Science & Medicine, 71(12), 2083-2090. Chen, Y., Yip, P.S.F., Lee, C., Fan, H. & Fu, K.

SUMMARY: Unemployment and suicide rates were examined in Taiwan and Hong Kong during rising unemployment (1997-2003) and its decline in 2003-2007. Suicide rated increased with rising unemployment and rejecting predictions, they did not decrease at the rate expected when employment increased. Unemployment is a strong predictor of suicide however, other factors need to be looked into.
 

RESEARCH: Early life circumstances and male suicide – A 30-year follow-up of a Stockholm cohort born in 1953. Social Science & Medicine, 70(3), 420-427. Rojas, Y. & Stenberg, S.

SUMMARY: Early life circumstances among men in a Stockholm birth cohort born in 1953 were analyzed to determine the relationship between early social integration and suicide. It was found that self perceived loneliness at the age of 12-13, school absenteeism at the same age and growing up in a family receiving means tested social assistance were all indicators of social isolation, integration and poverty. These indicators related to suicide risk between 1970 and 1984. Social integration can be understood in terms of social recognition and one’s own perception of themselves. It is important to see a child’s sense of social integration as an important developmental factor.
 

 2009

RESEARCH: Suicide among male regular UK Armed Forces personnel, 1984-2007. Occupational And Environmental Medicine, 66(7), 438-441. Fear, N.T., Ward, V.R., Harrison, K., Davison, L., Williamson, S. & Blatchley, N.F.

SUMMARY: Suicide in the armed forces from 1984-2007. There were fewer suicides than expected in comparison to the UK population average. The exception was men under the age of 20 in the Army where there were 1.5 times more deaths than expected.
 

2008

RESEARCH: HPT axis, CSF monoamine metabolites, suicide intent and depression severity in male suicide attempters. Journal of Affective Disorders, 111(1), 119-124. Jokinen, J., Samuelsson, M., Nordström, A. & Nordström, P.

SUMMARY: This study looks at the relationship between hormones and suicide. Low levels of serotonin and dopamine are linked with depression therefore hormone levels could potentially be linked to suicide. The specific hormones deltamaxTSH correlated with CSF HVA. It was found that suicidal men had altered thyroid hormonal activity. 

2006

RESEARCH: Male suicide and occupation in Scotland. Health statistics quarterly / Office for National Statistics, (29), 26-9. Stark, C., Belbin, A., Hopkins, P., Gibbs, D., Hay, A. & Gunnell, D.

SUMMARY: The relationship between occupation and suicide in Scotland was examined closely for the period of 1981-1999 for men aged 16-64 years. Low paying occupations, such as labourers had the highest level of suicide. Medical practitioners in the 16-45 and 46-64 year age groups with accessible means to suicide also showed high vulnerability. Occupations in rural areas conveyed an increase in the level of suicide rates.
 

2005

RESEARCH: Comparison of suicide in people aged 65-74 and 75+ by gender in England and Wales and the major Western countries, 1979-1999. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(1), 17-25. Pritchard, C. & Hansen, L.

SUMMARY: Age and gender are the factors most strongly associated with suicide. Elderly suicides over a 20year period (1979-1999) in England and Wales were compared. Male suicide rates were higher than females. The 65-74 male demographic in England and Wales fell significantly more than other Western nations.

2004

RESEARCH: Seasonal differences in psychopathology of male suicide completers. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 45(5), 333-339. Kim, C.D., Lesage, A.D., Seguin, M., Chawky, N., Vanier, C., Lipp, O. & Turecki, G.

SUMMARY: Suicide is believed to vary according to season, with highs in the spring and lows in the winter. 115 French-Canadian male suicide completers were evaluated. Seasonal variation in terms of suicide rates manifests itself differently in patients depending on whether they have a mental health disorder and the specific disorder. Seasonal affects are significant but are dependent on the subject.
 

2002

RESEARCH: Ready to die: a postmodern interpretation of the increase of African-American adolescent male suicide. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 55(6), 907-920. Willis, L.A., Coombs, D.W., Cockerham, W.C. & Frison, S.L.

SUMMARY: African Americans typically had lower suicide rates than white Americans however, stats in 1998 confirm that this has changed. Suicide rates are now equal between both ethnicities. A decreased sense of community and support in modern times has led to feelings of vulnerability. The inability for institutions to protect this demographic from psychological distress leads to increasing cases of depression and suicide.
 

2001

RESEARCH: The Age Structure of Male Suicide Rates: Measurement and Analysis of 20 Developed Countries, 1955–1994. Social Science Research, 30(4), 627-640. Cutright, P. & Fernquist, R.M.

SUMMARY: A comparative study of the age structures in male suicide. Rates in US and 19 other developed countries were compared from 1955-1994. There was a significant increase in suicides for men between the ages of 15-44 across the developed and men aged 45-74 showed a decline in suicide rates.
 

1996

RESEARCH: Occupation and suicide among males in the US armed forces. Annals of Epidemiology, 6(1), 83-88. Helmkamp, J.C.

SUMMARY: 1980-1992 95% of US military suicides were committed by men. The majority (71%) were aged between 20-34. The data collected emphasises an occupational risk for men in the military. Occupations with access to firearms showed more of a risk; 61% of suicides used a firearm. Research must be conducted to determine the appropriate suicide prevention schemes.

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